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· LouisVoday  

?INTRODUCTION TO SYNTHESES (mostly from Cassie Carter - with her kind permission) CONTENTS What is truly a synthesis? Two varieties of syntheses Standards for synthesis essays How to write down synthesis essays Techniques for developing synthesis essays Thesis statements, introductions, conclusions, and quotations WHAT Is actually a SYNTHESIS? A synthesis can be a written discussion that draws on a single or a little more resources. It follows that your ability to write down syntheses relies upon on your ability to infer relationships among resources - essays, articles, fiction, and also nonwritten resources, these types of as lectures, interviews, observations. This routine is nothing new for you, since you infer relationships all the time - say, amongst something you've look at while in the newspaper and something you've seen for yourself, or among the teaching styles of your favorite and least favorite instructors. In fact, if you've written research papers, you've previously written syntheses. In an academic synthesis, you make explicit the relationships which you have inferred among separate resources. The skills you've previously been practicing on this course will be vital in composing syntheses. Clearly, before you're inside of a position to draw relationships among two or additional resources, you must understand what those resources say; in other words, you must be able to summarize these resources. It will frequently be helpful for the readers for those who make available at least partial summaries of resources with your synthesis essays. For the same time, you must go beyond summary to make judgments - judgments based mostly, of course, on your critical reading of your resources - as you have practiced in your own reading responses and in class discussions. You should by now have drawn some conclusions about the excellent quality and validity of these resources; and you should know how very much you agree or disagree with the points made inside of your resources as well as reasons for ones agreement or disagreement. Further, you must go beyond the critique of individual resources to determine the relationship among them. Is the related information in source B, for example, an extended illustration of your generalizations in source A? Would it be useful to compare and contrast source C with source B? Having browse through and considered resources A, B, and C, can you infer something else - D (not a source, but your private idea)? Considering the fact that a synthesis is dependant upon two or added resources, you will absolutely need to be selective when choosing critical information from each individual. It would be neither conceivable nor desirable, for instance, to discuss in a very ten-page paper to the battle of Wounded Knee every point that the authors of two books make about their subject. What you as a writer must do is select the ideas and intel from each individual source that most beneficial permit you to definitely enjoy your purpose. PURPOSE Your purpose in reading source materials and then in drawing upon them to write down your very own material is often reflected on the wording of an assignment. For example, your assignment may ask that you simply evaluate a textual content, argue a position on the topic, explain cause and effect relationships, or compare and contrast items. Though you may possibly utilize the same resources in creating an argumentative essay as your classmate takes advantage of in composing a comparison/contrast essay, you will make different makes use of of those resources determined by the different purposes from the assignments. What you uncover worthy of detailed analysis in Source A may be mentioned only in passing by your classmate. Utilizing YOUR Resources Your purpose determines not only what parts of your resources you will use but also how you will relate them to just one another. Since the very essence of synthesis is the combining of tips and ideas, you must have some basis on which to combine them. Some relationships among the material in you resources must make them worth sythesizing. It follows that the superior able you will be to discover these relationships, the higher able you will be make use of your resources in crafting syntheses. Your purpose in composing (depending on your assignment) will determine how you relate your source materials to just one another. Your purpose in creating determines which resources you use, which parts of these you use, at which points inside your essay you use them, and in what manner you relate them to an individual another. TWO Variations OF SYNTHESES THE EXPLANATORY SYNTHESIS: An explanatory synthesis helps readers to understand a topic. Writers explain when they divide a subject into its component parts and current them to the reader inside a clear and orderly fashion. Explanations may entail descriptions that re-create in words some object, location, event, sequence of events, or state of affairs. The purpose in crafting an explanatory essay is not really to argue a particular point, but rather to existing the facts in a very reasonably aim manner. The explanatory synthesis does not go very much beyond what is obvious from the careful reading of your resources. You will not be composing explanatory synthesis essays within this course. However, at times your argumentative synthesis essays will include sections that are explanatory in nature. THE ARGUMENT SYNTHESIS: The purpose of an argument synthesis is for you to definitely current your unique point of watch - supported, of course, by relevant facts, drawn from resources, and presented in a very reasonable manner. The thesis of an argumentative essay is debatable. It makes a proposition about which reasonable people could disagree, and any two writers working with the same source materials could conceive of and assist other, opposite theses. STANDARDS FOR SYNTHESIS ESSAYS 1. Remember that you just are utilizing your resources to help your ideas and promises, not the opposite way near. two. Keep in mind that original thought and insightful analysis are required for a four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 paper; two.5 and below evaluations tend not to existing original ideas. 3. A four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 paper will construct a "dialogue" among the essay author's ideas and her resources, and also among the resources themselves. two.5 and below evaluations will often summarize 1 point in a time, with the essay author's idea stated in the close. If you should imagine a synthesis essay as a room in which the synthesis writer is joined by the authors of her/his resources, the four.0, 3.5, or 3.0 essay has all people engaged in conversation or discussion, with anybody commenting on (or arguing against) every other's ideas directly. Inside of the two.5 and below essay, each and every person on the room stands up in turn, gives a speech, and sits down, with minor or no question and answer period between or afterward. four. Take special care to address your audience in an best suited manner. Make sure you establish your credibility around the subject which you grant sufficient particulars to make your argument (thesis) convincing. 5. Organize your paper logically: A. State your thesis clearly and make sure that it reflects the focus of your essay. B. Make sure your main points are clearly stated (use topic sentences), and connect each and every point to your thesis as explicitly as practical. C. Divide paragraphs logically. D. Provide you with suitable transitions both of those inside and involving paragraphs. 6. Build up every main idea thoroughly. Use targeted examples and source materials appropriately as service. Be sure to integrate source materials smoothly into your have producing by means of attribution phrases and transitions. Also be sure to avoid unnecessary repetition (repetition is often an organization problem). 7. Select words precisely. When in doubt, make use of a dictionary! 8. Make sure sentences are clear and unambiguous. Avoid passive voice. Double-check to see that sentences are adequately varied in duration and style, which there are no fragments or run-ons. Also proofread carefully to correct any other sentence errors. 9. Proofread carefully to identify and correct mechanical errors, this kind of as errors in plurals or possessives, subject-verb agreement, shifts in verb tense or person ("you"), comma errors, spelling errors, and so on. ten. Quadruple check your MLA documentation. Are your parenthetical citations correct? Is your Is effective Cited list correct according to MLA style, and does it include all resources cited inside your essay? eleven. Be sure to give your essay a descriptive and attention-getting title (NOT "Synthesis," for goodness sake. ). 12. Make sure your essay is formatted correctly and posted to your online web-site correctly. HOW To put in writing SYNTHESIS ESSAYS Consider your purpose in creating. Browse through the topic assignment carefully. What are you trying to accomplish inside your essay? How will this purpose shape the way you procedure your resources? Select and carefully look at your resources, according to your purpose. Re-read the resources, mentally summarizing just about every. Identify those aspects or parts of your resources that will help you in fulfilling your purpose. When rereading, label or underline the passages for main ideas, key terms, and any details you need to use inside synthesis. Formulate a thesis. Your thesis is the main idea you aspire to current in your own synthesis. It must be expressed as a comprehensive sentence and include a statement in the topic and your assertion about that topic. At times the thesis is the first of all sentence, but even more often it is the final sentence belonging to the first of all paragraph. Decide how you will use your source material and take notes. How will the facts plus the ideas into your resources help you to definitely fulfill your purpose? Re-read your resources and produce down the content from your resources that will most useful create and guidance your thesis. Cultivate and organizational plan, according to your thesis. (See Techniques for Developing Synthesis Essays immediately below.) How will you arrange your material? It isn't really necessary to prepare a formal outline, but you should have some plan in mind that will indicate the order in which you will existing your material which will indicate the relationships among your resources. Produce the for starters draft of your synthesis, following your organizational plan. Be versatile with your plan, however, and let yourself room to incorporate new ideas you discover as you generate. As you discover and incorporate new ideas, re-read your do the trick frequently to ensure that your thesis nevertheless accounts for what follows which what follows nevertheless logically supports your thesis. Document your resources. Use MLA-style in-text citations and also a Operates Cited list to credit your resources for all material you quote, paraphrase, or summarize. For example, if I wanted to note in my essay the difference somewhere between name-calling and argumentum ad hominem as personal sorts of attack, I would credit the article on "Politics: The Art of Bamboozling" from WARAC by offering a citation that comprises the author's last name also, the exact website page range where she discussed this notion (Cross 302). In the conclude of your essay, I would have a extensive bibliographic citation with the "Politics" article. Revise your synthesis. Insert transitional words and phrases where necessary. Integrate all quotations so they flow smoothly inside of your have sentences. Use attribution phrases to distinguish around your sources' ideas and your personal ideas. Make sure the essay reads smoothly, logically, and clearly from beginning to conclude. Check for grammatical correctness, punctuation, and spelling. TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SYNTHESIS ESSAYS SUMMARY: The simplest - and least sophisticated - way of organizing a synthesis essay is to summarize your most relevant resources, 1 after one other, but generally with the best important source(s) last. The problem with this method is the fact it reveals very little or no independent thought on your part. Its main virtue is usually that it at least grounds your paper in relevant and specified evidence. Summary may possibly be useful - and sophisticated - if handled judiciously, selectively, and in mixture with other techniques. At some time you may desire to summarize a crucial source in some detail. At another point, you may would like to summarize a key section or paragraph of the source in a very solitary sentence. Try to anticipate what your reader needs to know at any given point of your paper in order to comprehend or appreciate fully the point that you are making. EXAMPLE OR ILLUSTRATION: At just one or further points in the paper, you may would like to refer to some particularly illuminating example or illustration from your source material. You may possibly paraphrase this example (i.e. recount it, in some detail, in your own have words), summarize it, or quote it directly from your source. In all these cases, of course, you would properly credit your source. TWO (OR Added) REASONS: The "two reasons" method tend to be an extremely effective method of progress. You simply state your thesis, then offer reasons why the statement is true, supported by evidence from your resources. It's possible to advance as a large number of reasons for that truth of your thesis as needed; but save by far the most important reason(s) for last, considering the conclusion with the paper is what will remain most clearly from the reader's mind. STRAWMAN: As you utilize the strawman technique, you existing an argument against your thesis, but immediately afterward you present that this argument is weak or flawed. The advantage of this technique is usually that you demonstrate your awareness on the other side of your argument and exhibit that you simply are prepared to answer it. The strawman argument to begin with presents an introduction and thesis, then the main opposing argument, a refutation in the opposing argument, and finally a positive argument. CONCESSION: Like the strawman, the concession technique presents the opposing viewpoint, but it really does not proceed to demolish the opposition. Instead, it concedes that the opposition has a valid point but that, even so, the positive argument is the stronger 1. This method is particularly valuable in case you know your reader holds the opposing see. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: Comparison and contrast techniques help you to definitely examine two subjects (or resources) in terms of a particular another. After you compare, you consider similarities. In case you contrast, you consider differences. By comparing and contrasting, you perform a multifaceted analysis that often suggests subtleties that otherwise could not have come to your attention. To organize a comparison/contrast analysis, you must carefully learn resources in order to discover significant criteria for analysis. A criterion is definitely a particular point to which each of your authors refer and about which they may agree or disagree. The most effective criteria are those that enable you not only to account for obvious similarities and differences among resources but also to plumb deeper, to added subtle and significant similarities and differences. There are two common formulas for comparison/contrast analysis: http://www.tmhstyle.com/uncategorised/enjoy-other-term-4/

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